Electronic Scientific Paper Archive

Protein and Mineral Substances in the Muscular Tissue of a Red Deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) from Uvs Province, Mongolia

J. Sukhdolgor*, B. Ouynchimeg* and J. Khatanbaatar**
*Department of Biochemistry and Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Biology, National University of Mongolia
**Hepatological Clinical Centre of Traditional Medicine,

Abstract

The authors defined the amount of macro and microelements, protein amino-acids, protein group substances, and general protein of the hindquarter muscular tissue of illegally hunted red deer from Turgen district of Uvs province. The content of general protein was 12.39'0, and by applying acrylamid
gel-electrophoresis method revealed 6-7 kinds of protein fractions. In addition, we found 16- 17 kinds of replaceable and irreplaceable amino acids from the muscular tissue and defined their amount. From the ash of muscular tissue we determined 24 elements and made appropriate assessments regarding to them.

Keyword: Muscular tissue,muscular protein,protein fraction,nutrient value

Introduction

The red deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) is the protected mammal species by the Hunting Low of Mongolia. In the Mongolian traditional medicine from ancient times use medicines prepared from organic substances of diverse animals. The recipe of those medicines include organic substances of several organs as head, brain, bone, meat, skin, milk, stomach, hair, born and gullet of different animals. For exaniple, the ash of red deer old antlers referred in traditional medicinal scriptures as effective to dry up blood, phlegm and its blood and adipose were used as ingredient of medicine for treatment of helminthose diseases (Baavgai & Boldsaikhan, 1990). As noted in sutras, Mongolian people use the meat, antlers, penis, testicles, tongue, tail and skin of red deer in medicine, technique, adornment accessory and in fields of industries (Dulamsuren et al., 1989).There are very scarce information on the study of muscular tissue of red deer. The researchers of the Institute of Animal Husbandry of Mongolia defined the meat calorific values of Altai mountain wild sheep (Ovis ammon Linnaeus, 1758), Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica Pallas, 1776,) and black-tailed gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa Guldenstaedt, 1780) by finding out the respective amounts of meat protein, adipose and investigatingash ofthem (Chernova, 1964, 1965). The meat of red deer is regarded as an excellent food due to its contamination of different nourishment substances. Some researchers mentioned that besides of fat and protein the deer meat contains vitamins of B group and various mineral substances (Pieve, 1972; Sillespie, 1960; Pavlovskiy & Palmin, 1975). Different ingredient compounds of meat depend on the Presence of muscular tissue, adipose and other kinds tissues. Muscular tissue is one of the important parts, which form the meat, and it performs various functions. It decreases the coagulation of blood, which circulate via blood vessels by spending a lot of energy and from stable resource of nourishment and energy needed for metabolism, when animal makes movements (Dulamsuren et al., 1989). Therefore, it appeared to be necessary to make research work on muscular tissue of the red deer.

Material and Methods

We used the muscular tissue sample of a red deer, which was illegally hunted by poachers in the territory of Turgen district, Uvs province in February of 2002, as the research material. The study is carried out by the statement of Natural Environment Protection Association of Uvs province. The hindquarter muscular tissue has the slight coagulation of blood on its external surface, and was in good frozen condition with brownish red color and fresh smell. The protein of muscular tissue was determined by Ganning method, the protein fraction is examined by 15% of acrylamid gel-electrophoresis, paper chromatographic method for identification of the amount of amino acids and by evaporation method for amount of macro and microelements, respectively.

Result

The amount of protein in the red deer hindquarter muscular tissue was defined by its general nitrogen presence, in 4-5 times, and the average amount was equal to 12.3%. The comparative data of the amount of red deer hindquarter muscular tissue protein with that of wild sheep, Siberian ibex and black-tailed gazelle is shown in Table 1.

As shown in Table 1, the amount of protein of the red deer muscular tissue is lower than that of other mammal species, which were hunted in the period of October and November. The reason could be probably explained that in our research we used red deer meat, hunted in February, when the amount of protein in its flesh might be decreased due to the winter period's scarce nourishment availability. Concerning the protein fractions of red deer hindquarter muscular tissue, we found of 6-7 major protein fractions, which shown in Figure 1.

As for the protein fractions' spreading image, we found other protein fractions besides of muscular tissue sarcoplasm and my of ibrill proteins. We used proteins with different molecular mass within 14.4-94 kDa as controlling criteria. According to international standard, the myosin has 208.000 molecular mass and P-galactosidase - 119.000, bovine serum albumin - 34.000, ovalbumin average - 5 1.000, carbonic anhydrase - 34.400, soybean trypsin inhibitor - 28.000, lysozyme - 20.000 and aprotinin - 7.000 molecular masses, respectively. The muscular tissue contains following basic protein fractions as myogen of 20%, which is sarcolemm protein, globulin X of 20%, myofibrillic myosin of 35%, actin of 15% and other proteins of lo%, respectively (Pavlovsky & Palmin, 1975).
Other proteins, which we found in red deer muscular tissue sample probably could be sarcolemmic and nucleus proteins. The amount of replaceable and irreplaceable amino acids, found in the muscular tissue of red deer is shown in Table 2.

Twenty-four macro and microelements are detected in the ash of muscular tissue, and calculated ration of them is shown on Table 3. The authors are revealed the presence of 5 macro elements with amount ranging 0.04>1 and a number of microelements with amount of 0.000 1- 0.07%.
The mineral substances are the constituent elements of muscular fibre's structural composition and they contribute active role in intercellular metabolism, presenting in the compound of metabolism, presenting in the compound of intercellular fluid.

Conclusion

Though the content of protein in the muscular tissue of red deer is lower than that of the beef and other wild animal meat, it is proved to have the quality of nutritional value about 39.4% according to essential amino acids. The fact of the presence of 5 macro elements and 19 microelements in the muscular tissue of red deer, provides supportingpoint to suppose that those elements are contribute good effects to activate enzymic system, blood buffer and protein formation inside of muscular tissue cell. But if we continue further investigations on muscular tissues, antlers, penis and testicles of this species of animal then, probably we could witness an interesting phenomena.

Acknowledgement

The research was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry and Bioorganic Chemistry, National University of Mongolia, Virus Research Laboratory of the Veterinary Institute, Spectrum Laboratory of the Central Geological Laboratory. Thanks due to heads and staff of these institutes for their encouragement and providing invaluable facilities.

Reference

  1. Baavgai Ch. & Boldsaikhan B. 1990. Mongolian Traditional Medicine. Ulaanbaatar. 336 pp.
  2. Bithevskiy Sh. &.Tersenov O.A. 1994. Biochemistry for Doctors. Uralskiy Rabochiy, Ekaterinburg, p. 177- 179.
  3. Chernova E.G. 1964. The meat chemical composition of wild sheep and Siberian ibex. Proceedings of the Research Institute ofAnimal Husbandry 11-12: 34-39.
  4. Chernova E.G. 1965.The meat chemical composition of black-tailed gazella. Proceedings of the Research Institute ofAnima1 Husbandry 13: 60-69.
  5. Sillespie E.L. 1960. The Science of Meat and Meat Products. San Francisco and London. p. 183- 190
  6. Dulamtseren S, Tsendjav D. & Avirmed D. 1989. Fauna of the Mongolian Peoples Republic. T. 2. Mammals. State Publishers, Ulaanbaatar. p. 49-61.
  7. Pavlovskiy P.E & palmin V.V. 1975. Biochemistry of Meat and Meat Products. Pishepromizdat, Moscow, p. 7-54.
  8. Piev Y.V. 1972. Biological Role of Molybdenum. Nauka, Moscow, 226 pp.